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LAUDA HKS Industrial Heating and Cooling Systems

Single-fluid Heat Transfer Technology from -150 to 400 °C

Lauda HKS

LAUDA HKS Temperature Control Units (TCU). Each TCU is connected via a plate heat exchanger to a central chiller which provides -30°C cold brine. Each TCU controls the temperature of individual condensers on top of several chemical reactors. The units are equipped with an electronic junction box and receives a control signal come from a central control station.

Accurate temperature control is accomplished by either supplying or removing thermal energy to a product, a vessel or process. The medium used to transport the energy must be flexible—with a wide operating temperature range and a good specific heat transfer capacity. Gaseous and solid mediums are not as suitable for combined heating and cooling applications so those heat transfer mediums tend to be liquid based. As these fluids transport thermal energy they are also known as liquid heat transfer fluids, hot oil systems or, more commonly, thermal fluids.

LAUDA has developed a key competence for controlling process temperatures in a variety of chemical, pharmaceutical, biological, nuclear and medical settings. Our HKS Heating and Cooling systems are developed upon a modular design concept, where we are able to customize your system while ensuring optimal performance for the process. The HKS Industrial Heating and Cooling Systems deliver heating, cooling and chilling from -150 up to 400 °C with cooling capacities to 300kW.


Lauda HKS

LAUDA HKS Central Control System (top left of assembly). LAUDA contributes to new flexibility in the setup of process equipment. The central chiller (top left) provides cold oil to several TCUs which are on the back side of assembly. The LAUDA central heater unit (top middle) provides hot oil to the TCUs. All LAUDA units are customized to fit on an aluminum pallet so customer can easily exchange all process equipment.

The HKS Industrial Heating and Cooling Systems allow you, our customers, to develop and scale-up production more quickly and efficiently, resulting in quicker-to-market end products.


Lauda HKS

LAUDA HKS full container solution. The LAUDA SUK 600 W EX. Operating temperature from -45°C to +140°C ;100 kW cooling power @ -30°C; 100 kW electrical heating power; 2500 x 6100x 3000 mm; Siemens SPS S7 Control system ; 400L Expansion tank inside.

consultation Fundamental component – competent consultation
At LAUDA you deal with specialists right from the start. We know that the right temperature crucially determines the quality of the end product and our advice is specific to your application. Here we can use our wealth of experience from the numerous systems we have produced. Therefore, we spend much time on this step in the procedure. We have broad knowledge of the field and experience in the project management of technologically demanding systems. Competent consultancy is a basic requirement for successful implementation, timely completion and customer satisfaction.
Modular engineering Connecting element – modular engineering
Project engineering is our special field. Working in close co-operation with you we draw up your specific system in the design process. The keyword here is "modular engineering". Tried and tested modules, combined for the application, provide you with tailor-made solutions. The matching of desired and actual values demands precise planning and exact project work at all interfaces. Each single LAUDA planing module has been proven many times and is continually developed further. This enables us to guarantee our high quality standard.
production Individual systems – highest quality standard
The best design is nothing without dependable implementation. Our production specialists are experienced and know precisely how special customer requirements are realized in heating and cooling systems. Through the on-going qualification of the staff and the implementation of all the relevant standards, all our systems have one thing in common – high quality with excellent performance data. All material qualities and technical features of components are comprehensively documented and can be traced at any time.
performace testing Optimal interaction – LAUDA plug & play
Since heating and cooling systems consist of ready-to-assemble units, on site they only need to be connected to the consumer. The transport and siting are already taken into account during the planning. Also questions of installation, pipe routing, insulation, safety engineering and explosion protection have to be clarified beforehand. In this respect LAUDA specialists are right up to date and provide competent support.
Start-up Test run – the system is put through its test
Complete system test in the LAUDA test bench before shipment; system with CE label
  • Pressure and leakage test (heat transfer fluid system + cooling system according to AD 2000 guideline)
  • Functional test under changing load
  • Test of control accuracy
  • Test run at max. and min. operating temperatures
  • Temperature sensor calibration
  • Test of all components relevant to safety in line with EC directive
  • Test protocol (verification of performance data)
After sales service Dependable service – always available anywhere
LAUDA Heating and cooling systems are designed for continuous operation with very little maintenance. However, international regulations and safety directives demand regular maintenance. To cater for the specific requirements preferably a maintenance plan is drawn up specially for the system. Our experienced service technicians carry out regular servicing. We are supported abroad by qualified representatives. The operating body can rest assured that the system is always properly and verifiably safely maintained when the industrial health and safety directive demands recurring inspections. In special cases our service team is available within 24 hours.

Basic modules – Supplementary modules –Heat exchanger modules

Consumer

Consumer

The control result depends on the object to be controlled. The control circuit consists of the consumer and the LAUDA temperature control system. The mass, thermal coupling and distance (pipework) determine the subsequent control quality. These points need to be considered right at the design stage.
Three-way valve

Three-way valve

Particularly, when stable control is required, the three-way valve is able to precisely mix two flows. Only one actuating controller is needed for this, in contrast to solutions with complex valve switching. Due to the hydraulic balance of the two flows, the pressure levels and volume flow rates remain stable – as does the closed-loop control characteristic in difficult partial load operation.
Expansion tank

Expansion tank

Expansion tanks can be open to the atmosphere, pressurized, rendered inert or also realized as diaphragm chambers. The design, size and materials are specified appropriately as required.
Controller

Controller

Temperature control means processing with-out temperature variations as well as controlling temperature progression. In the second case the temperature control system must be able to track certain curves. The LAUDA SR 600/SR 601 control module acquires set point and actual-value data and facilitates very precise control results in the cascade mode. Also, compliance to certain maximum temperature differences is freely adjustable.
Pump

Pump

Pumps are responsible for the circulation of the heat transfer fluid. In the selection of the right pump the following points play an important role: the conveying medium, temperature range, type of construction and, where applicable, the operating body's inventory. The pump flow is always ensured via the three-way valve.
Electric heater

Electric heater

Electric heaters are always used when heating by steam or other media is not possible or only possible up to a temperature which is too low. For energy-saving reasons a combination with second form of heating is however interesting.
Direct media coupling

Direct media coupling

If the same medium is used in the primary system as in the secondary circuit, direct coupling without a heat exchanger may give energy advantages. When the production of low temperatures is involved, each degree counts. The expansion tank is not needed, so this makes the unit more economical and more compact.
Heat exchanger for heating or cooling with liquid media

Heat exchanger for heating or cooling with liquid media

Heat exchangers are used when the heating and cooling energies of different media are to be exploited. With intelligent controllers the system efficiency can be further increased by heat and cold recovery.
Heat exchanger for heating with steam

Heat exchanger for heating with steam

Media containing chlorides are very corrosive. Here, special materials have to be used. High pressure steam demands a different heat exchanger design, as does deep-chilled thermal oil or liquid nitrogen. Therefore, the type of construction, materials, operating conditions and usable heat transfer area are specified differently from case to case.
Heat exchanger for heating or cooling with air

Heat exchanger for heating or cooling with air

It is worth using existing sources of cold and heat. For example, an air-cooled thermal-oil heat exchanger exploits the cooling power of the ambient air, is used for heating purposes in winter and preserves the environment. Also, river water or a cooling tower may be interesting alternatives to the cold water network which must be expensively recooled. Here too, heat exchangers help to save energy costs.

Air-cooled refrigeration modules

Cooling system with single-stage compressor, air-cooled

Cooling system with single-stage compressor, air-cooled

Single-stage cooling system with air-cooled condenser for producing temperatures from -35 up to 20 °C. The system consists of a single-stage compressor, evaporator, condenser, control components and a lubricating oil system.
Cooling system with two-stage compressor, air-cooled

Cooling system with two-stage compressor, air-cooled

Single-stage cooling system with air-cooled condenser for producing temperatures from -50 up to 20 °C. The system consists of a two-stage compressor, evaporator, condenser, control components and a lubricating oil system.
Two-stage cascade cooling system, air-cooled

Two-stage cascade cooling system, air-cooled

Two-stage cascade cooling system with air-cooled condenser for producing temperatures from -100 up to 20 °C. This system consists of two compressors, an evaporator, condenser, intermediate heat exchanger, control components and a lubricating oil system for each compressor.

Water-cooled refrigeration modules

Cooling system with single-stage compressor, water-cooled

Cooling system with single-stage compressor, water-cooled

Single-stage cooling system with water-cooled condenser for producing temperatures from -35 up to 20 °C. The system consists of a single-stage compressor, evaporator, condenser, control components and a lubricating oil system.
Cooling system with two-stage compressor, water-cooled

Cooling system with two-stage compressor, water-cooled

Single-stage cooling system with water-cooled condenser for producing temperatures from -50 up to 20 °C. The system consists of a two-stage compressor, evaporator, condenser, control components and a lubricating oil system.
Two-stage cascade cooling system, water-cooled

Two-stage cascade cooling system, water-cooled

Two-stage cascade cooling system with water-cooled condenser for producing temperatures from -100 up to 20 °C. This system consists of two compressors, an evaporator, condenser, intermediate heat exchanger, control components and a lubricating oil system for each compressor.

Tips on the selection of a suitable heat transfer fluid

Nothing is more important than the right concept for selecting the optimum temperature control system . Firstly the temperature range must be defined for the application under consideration. In this respect some details about the process and the plant equipment should already be known. The maximum and minimum heat transfer fluid temperatures are not only given by the temperature progression of the actual process, but rather the relevant power balance, type and geometry of the plant equipment primarily determine the required temperature differences on the heat transfer surfaces. These temperature differences are needed for the heat transfer and therefore the temperature range of the heat transfer liquid must be correspondingly wider, both upwards and downwards. Then, the question of the heating or cooling source must be clarified. Is an existing medium to be used by means of a heat exchanger in a secondary circuit system for heating and cooling or is a heat transfer system with electrical heating or a process cooling system with chillers required? Irrespective of which modules are used to customize the system, it belongs to one of the three LAUDA lines of systems.

LAUDA Heating and cooling systems are essentially closed systems. Through the connection of compressed air or nitrogen, pressurization and inertization (nitrogen) can be realized. In this way the heat transfer fluids can be used in essentially wider temperature ranges than with open systems (without pressurization).

Water
Water/glycol
Thermal oils/low temperature
Thermal oils/high temperature
Special liquids/ultra-low temperature

Heat transfer fluids are primarily differentiated by their possible temperature range. Water is the most popular and most frequently used thermostatic medium. With regard to the high specific thermal capacity of nearly 4.2 kJ/kgK water is the best possible heat carrier. Through addition of an anti-freeze agent, e.g. glycol, the temperature range can be expanded down to -35 °C. However, the high vapor pressure above 100 °C is often a disadvantage of aqueous heat transfer fluids. To be able to obtain temperature ranges between -120 and 400 °C organic heat transfer liquids or silicone oils must be used. If evaporation without residues is important, e.g. sensitive electronic components have to be thermally tested, fluorine-based inert liquids can also be used.

Molten Salt Plants

Temperature control using liquid salt as a heat carrier

Using molten salt as a heat carrier has real advantages, especially in the temperature range from 120 °C to 550 °C, compared to thermal oils, which are limited to an operating temperature of approximately 400 °C. Salt mixtures are liquid under such operating conditions and have advantages such as low viscosity, high heat capacity and pressureless operation. Self-draining systems also ensure high levels of operational safety. Cooling modules that cool down salt mixtures close to their setting point, accurately to within one degree, can also be fitted as needed. This makes it possible to realize a temperature control system with a unique working temperature range. This is not possible using other heat carriers. Application areas include, for example, aluminum dioxide or melamine production as well as lye evaporation and various high-temperature reactions.

Functional diagram of a temperature control system using liquid salt as a heat carrier

Temperature control systems that use liquid salt as a heat carrier have a heated floor tank equipped with a submersible pump. When the pump is switched off, the salt mixture is fed back into the tank to prevent salt from solidifying in the plant. The salt pump conveys the heat carrier to the heater, which can be an electric heater or a fuel-fired boiler, where the salt mixture is heated to the required temperature. An installed air or water cooler can be used to cool down the heat carrier to any temperature above its solidification point.